Major works

Below is a list of major (edited) works by researchers and affiliates of  MUSTS.

 

moores-law

The Long Arm of Moore’s Law: Microelectronics and American Science

By Cyrus C.M. Mody
MIT Press, 2016.

Since the mid 1960s, American science has undergone significant changes in the way it is organized, funded, and practiced. These changes include the decline of basic research by corporations; a new orientation toward the short-term and the commercial, with pressure on universities and government labs to participate in the market; and the promotion of interdisciplinarity. In this book, Cyrus Mody argues that the changes in American science that began in the 1960s co-evolved with and were shaped by the needs of the “civilianized” US semiconductor industry.

In 1965, Gordon Moore declared that the most profitable number of circuit components that can be crammed on a single silicon chip doubles every year. Mody views “Moore’s Law” less as prediction than as self-fulfilling prophecy, pointing to the enormous investments of capital, people, and institutions the semiconductor industry required—the “long arm” of Moore’s Law that helped shape all of science.

Mody offers a series of case studies in microelectronics that illustrate the reach of Moore’s Law. He describes the pressures on Stanford University’s electrical engineers during the Vietnam era, IBM’s exploration of alternatives to semiconductor technology, the emergence of consortia to integrate research across disciplines and universities, and the interwoven development of the the molecular electronics community and associated academic institutions as the vision of a molecular computer informed the restructuring of research programs.


cybergenetics

CyberGenetics: Health Genetics and New Media

By Anna Harris, Susan Kelly and Sally Wyatt
Routledge, 2016.

Online genetic testing services are increasingly being offered to consumers who are becoming exposed to, and knowledgeable about, new kinds of genetic technologies, as the launch of a 23andme genetic testing product in the UK testifies. Genetic research breakthroughs, cheek swabbing forensic pathologists and celebrities discovering their ancestral roots are littered throughout the North American, European and Australasian media landscapes. Genetic testing is now capturing the attention, and imagination, of hundreds of thousands of people who can not only buy genetic tests online, but can also go online to find relatives, share their results with strangers, sign up for personal DNA-based musical scores, and take part in research. This book critically examines this market of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing from a social science perspective, asking, what happens when genetics goes online?

With a focus on genetic testing for disease, the book is about the new social arrangements which emerge when a traditionally clinical practice (genetic testing) is taken into new spaces (the internet). It examines the intersections of new genetics and new media by drawing from three different fields: internet studies; the sociology of health; and science and technology studies.

While there has been a surge of research activity concerning DTC genetic testing, particularly in sociology, ethics and law, this is the first scholarly monograph on the topic, and the first book which brings together the social study of genetics and the social study of digital technologies. This book thus not only offers a new overview of this field, but also offers a unique contribution by attending to the digital, and by drawing upon empirical examples from our own research of DTC genetic testing websites (using online methods) and in-depth interviews in the United Kingdom with people using healthcare services.

For more information and ordering, see Routledge.


emerging-technologies-for-diagnosing-alzheimers-disease

Emerging Technologies for Diagnosing Alzheimer’s Disease: Innovating with Care

Edited by Marianne Boenink, Harro van Lente and Ellen Moors
Palgrave MacMillan, 2016.

This book explores international biomedical research and development on the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. It offers timely, multidisciplinary reflections on the social and ethical issues raised by promises of early diagnostics and asks under which conditions emerging diagnostic technologies can be considered a responsible innovation.

The initial chapters in this edited volume provide an overview and a critical discussion of recent developments in biomedical research on Alzheimer’s disease. Subsequent contributions explore the values at stake in current practices of dealing with Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, both within and outside the biomedical domain. Novel diagnostic technologies for Alzheimer’s disease emerge in a complex and shifting field, full of controversies. Innovating with care requires a precise mapping of how concepts, values and responsibilities are filled in through the confrontation of practices. In doing so, the volume offers a practice-based approach of responsible innovation that is also applicable to other fields of innovation.

For more information and ordering, see Palgrave MacMillan.


book-darryl-cressman-final-300x180

Building Musical Culture in Nineteenth-Century Amsterdam: The Concertgebouw

By Darryl Cressman
Amsterdam University Press, 2016.

When people attend classical music concerts today, they sit and listen in silence, offering no audible reactions to what they’re hearing. We think of that as normal-but, as Darryl Cressman shows in this book, it’s the product of a long history of interrelationships between music, social norms, and technology. Using the example of Amsterdam’s Concertgebouw in the nineteenth century, Cressman shows how its design was in part intended to help discipline and educate concert audiences to listen attentively – and analysis of its creation and use offers rich insights into sound studies, media history, science and technology studies, classical music, and much more.

For more information and ordering, see Amsterdam University Press.

book-stations-in-the-field

Stations in the Field: A History of Place-Based Animal Research, 1870-1930

By Raf de Bont
University of Chicago Press, 2014.

When we think of sites of animal research that symbolize modernity, the first places that come to mind are grand research institutes in cities and near universities that house the latest in equipment and technologies, not the surroundings of the bird’s nest, the octopus’s garden in the sea, or the parts of inland lakes in which freshwater plankton reside. Yet during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a group of zoologists began establishing novel, indeed modern ways of studying nature, propagating what present-day ecologists describe as place-based research.

Raf De Bont’s Stations in the Field focuses on the early history of biological field stations and the role these played in the rise of zoological place-based research. Beginning in the 1870s, a growing number of biological field stations were founded—first in Europe and later elsewhere around the world—and thousands of zoologists received their training and performed their research at these sites. Through case studies, De Bont examines the material and social context in which field stations arose, the actual research that was produced in these places, the scientific claims that were developed there, and the rhetorical strategies that were deployed to convince others that these claims made sense. From the life of parasitic invertebrates in northern France and freshwater plankton in Schleswig-Holstein, to migratory birds in East Prussia and pest insects in Belgium, De Bont’s book is fascinating tour through the history of studying nature in nature.

For more information and ordering, see University of Chicago Press.

book-karin-bijsterveld_featured

Sound and Safe: A History of Listening Behind the Wheel

By Karin Bijsterveld, Eefje Cleophas, Stefan Krebs and Gijs Mom
Oxford University Press, 2014.

Unravels an aspect of life-listening while driving-that is an everyday reality for millions of people.
Explains how and why the car has become such an important place for finding auditory privacy.
Puts readers behind the scenes at international standardization committees and automotive test benches.
Includes over fifty beautiful period images.
Includes a YouTube discussion, analyzing automotive commercials.

For more information and ordering, see Oxford University Press.


 Hommels_2014_Vulnerability in technological cultures

 Vulnerability in Technological Cultures

Edited by Anique Hommels, Jessica Mesman & Wiebe E. Bijker
MIT Press, 2014.

Novel technologies and scientific advancements offer not only opportunities but risks. Technological systems are vulnerable to human error and technical malfunctioning that have far-reaching consequences: one flipped switch can cause a cascading power failure across a networked electric grid. Yet, once addressed, vulnerability accompanied by coping mechanisms may yield a more flexible and resilient society. This book investigates vulnerability, in both its negative and positive aspects, in technological cultures. The contributors argue that viewing risk in terms of vulnerability offers a novel approach to understanding the risks and benefits of science and technology. Such an approach broadens conventional risk analysis by connecting to issues of justice, solidarity, and livelihood, and enabling comparisons between the global north and south.

The book explores case studies that range from agricultural practices in India to neonatal intensive care medicine in Western hospitals; these cases, spanning the issues addressed in the book, illustrate what vulnerability is and does. The book offers conceptual frameworks for empirical description and analysis of vulnerability that elucidate its ambiguity, context dependence, and constructed nature. Finally, the book addresses the implications of these analyses for the governance of vulnerability, proposing a more reflexive way of dealing with vulnerability in technological cultures.

Contributors
Marjolein van Asselt, Martin Boeckhout, Wiebe Bijker, Tessa Fox, Stephen Healy, Anique Hommels, Sheila Jasanoff, Jozef Keulartz, Jessica Mesman, Ger Palmboom, C. Shambu Prasad, Julia Quartz, Johan M. Sanne, Maartje Schermer, Teesta Setelvad, Esha Shah, Andy Stirling, Imrat Verhoeven, Esther Versluis, Shiv Visvanathan, Gerard de Vries, Ger Wackers, Dick Willems

For more information and ordering, see MIT Press.


 Hommels_Making of Europe Critical Infrastructure

The Making of Europe’s Critical Infrastructure – Common Connections and Shared Vulnerabilities

Edited by Per Högselius, Anique Hommels, Arne Kaijser and Erik van der Vleuten
Palgrave MacMillan, 2013.

Europe’s critical infrastructure is a key concern to policymakers, NGOs, companies, and citizens today. A 2006 power line failure in northern Germany closed lights in Portugal in a matter of seconds. Several Russian-Ukrainian gas crises shocked politicians, entrepreneurs, and citizens thousands of kilometers away in Germany, France, and Italy. This book argues that present-day infrastructure vulnerabilities resulted from choices of infrastructure builders in the past. It inquires which, and whose, vulnerabilities they perceived, negotiated, prioritized, and inscribed in Europe’s critical infrastructure. It does not take ‘Europe’ for granted, but actively investigates which countries and peoples were historically connected in joint interdependency, and why. In short, this collection unravels the simultaneous historical shaping of infrastructure, common vulnerabilities, and Europe.

For more information and ordering, see MacMillan.

Bijsterveld_Handbook of Sound Studies

The Oxford Handbook of Sound Studies

Edited by Trevor Pinch and Karin Bijsterveld
Oxford University Press, 2013.

Written by the world’s leading scholars and researchers in the emerging field of sound studies, The Oxford Handbook of Sound Studies offers new and fully engaging perspectives on the significance of sound in its material and cultural forms. The book considers sounds and music as experienced in such diverse settings as shop floors, laboratories, clinics, design studios, homes, and clubs, across an impressively broad range of historical periods and national and cultural contexts.

Rich in vivid and detailed examples and compelling case studies, and featuring a companion website of listening samples, this remarkable volume boldly challenges readers to rethink the way they hear and understand the world.

The Handbook can be ordered at, amongst others, Amazon.

Swierstra_Ethics on the laboratory floor

Ethics on the laboratory floor

Edited by Simone van der Burg and Tsjalling Swierstra
Palgrave MacMillan, 2013.

People nowadays live in a human-made environment, or technotope. Their lives are entangled with technology. Because technology not only brings gifts but also costs and hazards, it is important to reflect on what good technology is and, indeed, whether a technology contributes to a good life.

The ethicists and social scientists united in this volume contribute to a novel approach to ethics and technology that initiates or enhances timely ethical reflection with scientists and engineers. Ethical reflection during research and development can help to anticipate how it can change human (social) like, and evaluate those changes. Ethics on the Laboratory Floor contributes to research decisions, for example with regard to what research goals to pursue, what research lines to prioritise, or how best to design user tests. By joining these deliberations Ethics on the Laboratory Floor helps to realise the best technological alternatives.

The book can be ordered at MacMillan.

Klankwerelden de Leeuw

Klankwerelden. De twintigste eeuw van Reinbert de Leeuw

By Peter Peters
Leiden University Press

Worlds of sound is important for everyone who is interested in listening to music of the 20th century or for anyone involved in studying or performing contemporary music. The central question is how to interpret music in case the performer is not willing to depend on personal taste or conventions. How much must a performer know of the context in which the composer writes his/her music? How is the right tempo chosen and how is the music articulated in time? How does the performer establish a rendering of the composer’s ideal sound? How does the performer relate to music history? These questions will be addressed in view of works by Arnold Schönberg, Igor Stravinsky, Erik Satie, Olivier Messiaen, Pierre Boulez, György Kurtág, Galina Oestvolskaja, Claude Vivier, Mauricio Kagel and Reinbert de Leeuw himself. De Leeuw’s views on the performance practice of especially 20th century music have been widely covered in the media, but this is the first time that his ideas and understanding of performance practice and memories of collaborations with leading composers appear in the form of a book. They were taken from a series of seminars Reinbert de Leeuw (professor at Leiden University) presented at the Leiden University Academy of Creative and Performing Arts and the Orpheus Institute in Ghent.

The book can be ordered at Leiden University Press.

Lachmund_2013_Greening Berlin

Greening Berlin : The co-production of science, politics and urban nature

By Jens Lachmund
MIT University Press, 2013.

Although nature conservation has traditionally focused on the countryside, issues of biodiversity protection also appear on the political agendas of many cities. One of the emblematic examples of this now worldwide trend has been the German city of Berlin, where, since the 1970s, urban planning has been complemented by a systematic policy of “biotope protection”—at first only in the walled city island of West Berlin, but subsequently across the whole of the reunified capital. In Greening Berlin, Jens Lachmund uses the example of Berlin to examine the scientific and political dynamics that produced this change.

The book can be ordered at MIT Press.

Bijker social construction of technological systems

The social construction of technological systems – New directions in the sociology and history of technology

Edited by Wiebe E. Bijker, Thomas P. Hughes and Trevor Pinch
MIT University Press, 2012.

This pioneering book, first published in 1987, launched the new field of social studies of technology. It introduced a method of inquiry–social construction of technology, or SCOT–that became a key part of the wider discipline of science and technology studies. The book helped the MIT Press shape its STS list and inspired the Inside Technology series. The thirteen essays in the book tell stories about such varied technologies as thirteenth-century galleys, eighteenth-century cooking stoves, and twentieth-century missile systems. Taken together, they affirm the fruitfulness of an approach to the study of technology that gives equal weight to technical, social, economic, and political questions, and they demonstrate the illuminating effects of the integration of empirics and theory. The approaches in this volume–collectively called SCOT (after the volume’s title) have since broadened their scope, and twenty-five years after the publication of this book, it is difficult to think of a technology that has not been studied from a SCOT perspective and impossible to think of a technology that cannot be studied that way.

This Anniversary Edition can be ordered at MIT Press.

Wyatt_Virtual Knowledge

Virtual Knowledge – Experimenting in the Humanities and the Social Sciences

Edited by Paul Wouters, Anne Beaulieu, Andrea Scharnhorst and Sally Wyatt
MIT University Press, 2010.

Today we are witnessing dramatic changes in the way scientific and scholarly knowledge is created, codified, and communicated. This transformation is connected to the use of digital technologies and the virtualization of knowledge. In this book, scholars from a range of disciplines consider just what, if anything, is new when knowledge is produced in new ways. Does knowledge itself change when the tools of knowledge acquisition, representation, and distribution become digital?

Issues of knowledge creation and dissemination go beyond the development and use of new computational tools. The book, which draws on work from the Virtual Knowledge Studio, brings together research on scientific practice, infrastructure, and technology. Focusing on issues of digital scholarship in the humanities and social sciences, the contributors discuss who can be considered legitimate knowledge creators, the value of “invisible” labor, the role of data visualization in policy making, the visualization of uncertainty, the conceptualization of openness in scholarly communication, data floods in the social sciences, and how expectations about future research shape research practices. The contributors combine an appreciation of the transformative power of the virtual with a commitment to the empirical study of practice and use.

The book can be ordered at MIT Press.

Bijker_Paradox of scientific authority

The paradox of scientific authority: The role of scientific advice in democracies

By Wiebe E. Bijker, Roland Bal and Ruud Hendriks
MIT University Press, 2009.

Today, scientific advice is asked for (and given) on questions ranging from stem-cell research to genetically modified food. And yet it often seems that the more urgently scientific advice is solicited, the more vigorously scientific authority is questioned by policy makers, stakeholders, and citizens. This book examines a paradox: how scientific advice can be influential in society even when the status of science and scientists seems to be at a low ebb. The authors do this by means of an ethnographic study of the creation of scientific authority at one of the key sites for the interaction of science, policy, and society: the scientific advisory committee.

The Paradox of Scientific Authority offers a detailed analysis of the inner workings of the influential Health Council of the Netherlands (the equivalent of the National Academy of Science in the United States), examining its societal role as well as its internal functioning and using the findings to build a theory of scientific advising. The question of scientific authority has political as well as scholarly relevance. Democratic political institutions, largely developed in the nineteenth century, lack the institutional means to address the twenty-first century’s pervasively scientific and technological culture; and science and technology studies (S&TS) grapples with the central question of how to understand the authority of science while recognizing its socially constructed nature.

This book, part of the Inside Technologyseries, can be ordered at MIT Press.

Hommels_Unbuilding cities

Unbuilding cities: Obduracy in urban sociotechnical change

By Anique Hommels
MIT University Press, 2008.

City planning initiatives and redesign of urban structures often become mired in debate and delay. Despite the fact that cities are considered to be dynamic and flexible spaces—never finished but always under construction—it is very difficult to change existing urban structures; they become fixed, obdurate, securely anchored in their own histories as well as in the histories of their surroundings.

In Unbuilding Cities, Anique Hommels looks at the tension between the malleability of urban space and its obduracy, focusing on sites and structures that have been subjected to “unbuilding”—redesign or reconfiguration. She brings the concepts of science and technology studies (STS) to bear on the study of cities. Viewing the city as a large sociotechnological artifact, she demonstrates the usefulness of STS tools that were developed to analyze other technological artifacts and explores in detail the role of obduracy in sociotechnical change. Her analysis distinguishes three concepts of obduracy: interactionist, in which actors with diverging views are constrained by fixed ways of thinking and interacting; relational, in which change is difficult because of technology’s embeddedness in sociotechnical networks; and enduring, in which persistent traditions influence the development of technology over time.

Hommels examines the tensions between obduracy and change in three urban redesign projects in the Netherlands: a renovated city center that fell into drabness and disrepair; a highway system that runs through a densely populated urban area; and a high-rise housing project, designed according to modernist precepts and built for middle-class families, that became a haven for unemployment and crime. Unbuilding Cities contributes to a productive fusion of STS and urban studies.

This book can be ordered at MIT Press.

Mesman_Uncertainty in medical innovation

Uncertainty in medical innovation: Experienced pioneers in neonatal care

By Jessica Mesman
Palgrave MacMillan, 2008.

The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit is a site where hi-tech medicine and vulnerable human beings come into close contact. Focusing on a number of medical and ethical challenges encountered by staff and parents, this book provides a new perspective on the complexity of these treatments and the inventiveness of those involved.

This book, winner of the British Sociology Association’s Sociology of Health and Illness Prize, can be ordered at MacMillan.

Bijsterveld_Mechanical sound

Mechanical Sound: Technology, Culture, and Public Problems of Noise in the Twentieth Century

By Karin Bijsterveld
MIT University Press, 2008.

Since the late nineteenth century, the sounds of technology have been the subject of complaints, regulation, and legislation. By the early 1900s, antinoise leagues in Western Europe and North America had formed to fight noise from factories, steam trains, automobiles, and gramophones, with campaigns featuring conferences, exhibitions, and “silence weeks.” And, as Karin Bijsterveld points out in Mechanical Sound, public discussion of noise has never died down and continues today. In this book, Bijsterveld examines the persistence of noise on the public agenda, looking at four episodes of noise and the public response to it in Europe and the United States between 1875 and 1975: industrial noise, traffic noise, noise from neighborhood radios and gramophones, and aircraft noise. She also looks at a twentieth-century counterpoint to complaints about noise: the celebration of mechanical sound in avant-garde music composed between the two world wars. Bijsterveld argues that the rise of noise from new technology combined with overlapping noise regulations created what she calls a “paradox of control.” Experts and politicians promised to control some noise, but left other noise problems up to citizens. Aircraft noise, for example, measured in formulas understandable only by specialists, was subject to public regulation; the sounds of noisy neighborhoods were the responsibility of residents themselves. In addition, Bijsterveld notes, the spatial character of anti-noise interventions that impose zones and draw maps, despite the ability of sound to cross borders and boundaries, has helped keep noise a public problem. We have tried to create islands of silence, she writes, yet we have left a sea of sounds to be fiercely discussed.

The book can be ordered at, amongst others, Amazon.

Bijker_Bicycles Bakelites Bulbs

Of Bicycles, Bakelites, and Bulbs: Toward a Theory of Sociotechnical Change

By Wiebe E. Bijker
MIT University Press, 1997.

This book crystallizes and extends the important work Wiebe Bijker has done in the last decade to found a full-scale theory of sociotechnical change that describes where technologies come from and how societies deal with them. Of Bicycles, Bakelites, and Bulbs integrates detailed case studies with theoretical generalizations and political analyses to offer a fully rounded treatment both of the relations between technology and society and of the issues involved in sociotechnical change.

The stories of the the safety bicycle, the first truly synthetic plastic, and the fluorescent light bulb – each a fascinating case study in itself – reflect a cross section of time periods, engineering and scientific disciplines, and economic, social, and political cultures. The bicycle story explores such issues as the role of changing gender relationships in shaping a technology; the Bakelite story examines the ways in which social factors intrude even in cases of seemingly pure chemistry and entrepreneurship; and the fluorescent bulb story offers insights into the ways in which political and economic relationships can affect the form of a technology.

Bijker’s method is to use these case studies to suggest theoretical concepts that serve as building blocks in a more and more inclusive theory, which is then tested against further case studies. His main concern is to create a basis for science, technology, and social change that uncovers the social roots of technology, making it amenable to democratic politics.

The book can be ordered by MIT Press.

Bijker_Shaping technology

Shaping Technology/Building Society – Studies in Sociotechnical Change

By Wiebe E. Bijker
MIT University Press, 1994.

Technology is everywhere, yet a theory of technology and its social dimension remains to be fully developed. Building on the influential book The Social Construction of Technological Systems, this volume carries forward the project of creating a theory of technological development and implementation that is strongly grounded in both sociology and history. The 12 essays address the central question of how technologies become stabilized, how they attain a final form and use that is generally accepted. The essays are tied together by a general introduction, part introductions, and a theoretical conclusion.

The first part of the book examines and criticizes the idea that technologies have common life cycles; three case studies cover the history of a successful but never produced British jet fighter, the manipulation of patents by a French R&D company to gain a market foothold, and the managed development of high-intensity fluorescent lighting to serve the interests of electricity suppliers as well as the producing company.

The second part looks at broader interactions shaping technology and its social context: the question of who was to define “steel,” the determination of what constitutes radioactive waste and its proper disposal, and the social construction of motion pictures as exemplified by Thomas Edison’s successful development of the medium and its commercial failure.

The last part offers theoretical studies suggesting alternative approaches to sociotechnologies; two studies argue for a strong sociotechnology in which artifact and social context are viewed as a single seamless web, while the third looks at the ways in which a social program is a technology.

The book can be ordered at MIT Press.